Power to the STAR People
Marsha P. Johnson, 1992
Chemical conversion therapy for the chosen lifestyle…
Lobotomy, as a cure for the queer ailment
Dr. Walter Freeman ‘operating’ at Western State Hospital, 1949.
[Seattle Post-Intelligencer Collection, Museum of History & Industry, Seattle]
…the operation was extreme enough to be used only as a possible cure for the most intransigent of mental patients, such as those who were prone to violence or who had been through every other form of treatment psychiatrists had to offer. Eventually, it began to be considered as a way to cure nonviolent mental patients, including those whose symptom stemmed from problems with sexual adjustment.
[‘operating’, my emphasis…]
Could He Change His Sex?
Jordan Park, 1953